99% USP Levodopa Powder Parkinson Treatment Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients
Alias: L-DOPA, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine, L-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
CAS No.: 59-92-7
Appearance: White or Off-White Crystalline Powder
Place of Origin: China
Method of Analysis: HPLC
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Supply Ability: 1000 ton/month
Minimum Order Quantity: 10g
L-DOPA crosses the protective blood-brain barrier, whereas dopamine itself cannot. Thus, L-DOPA is used to increase dopamine concentrations in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and dopamine-responsive dystonia. This treatment was made practical and proven clinically by George Cotzias and his coworkers, for which they won the 1969 Lasker Prize. Once L-DOPA has entered the central nervous system, it is converted into dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, also known as DOPA decarboxylase. Pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6) is a required cofactor in this reaction, and may occasionally be administered along with L-DOPA, usually in the form of pyridoxine.
Besides the central nervous system, L-DOPA is also converted into dopamine from within the peripheral nervous system. Excessive peripheral dopamine signaling causes many of the adverse side effects seen with sole L-DOPA administration. To bypass these effects, it is standard clinical practice to coadminister (with L-DOPA) a peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI) such as carbidopa (medicines containing carbidopa, either alone or in combination with L-DOPA, are branded as Lodosyn (Aton Pharma) Sinemet (Merck Sharp & Dohme Limited), Pharmacopa (Jazz Pharmaceuticals), Atamet (UCB), and Stalevo (Orion Corporation) or with a benserazide (combination medicines are branded Madopar or Prolopa), to prevent the peripheral synthesis of dopamine from L-DOPA. Coadministration of pyridoxine without a DDCI accelerates the peripheral decarboxylation of L-DOPA to such an extent that it negates the effects of L-DOPA administration, a phenomenon that historically caused great confusion.
In addition, L-DOPA, co-administered with a peripheral DDCI, has been investigated as a potential treatment for restless leg syndrome. However, studies have demonstrated "no clear picture of reduced symptoms".
The two types of response seen with administration of L-DOPA are:
The short-duration response is related to the half-life of the drug.
The longer-duration response depends on the accumulation of effects over at least two weeks, during which ΔFosB accumulates in nigrostriatal neurons. In the treatment of Parkinson's disease, this response is evident only in early therapy, as the inability of the brain to store dopamine is not yet a concern.
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